Definitions and Terminology

Extremism The vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces".

Radicalisation The process by which a person comes to support terrorism and extremist ideologies associated with terrorist groups.

Defence league It is considered a single issue pronationalist group which opposes the spread of Islamism, Sharia Law and Islamic extremism and is not assessed to be extreme right wing. However its activity is closely monitored as its rhetoric attracts people from other extreme right wing groups, and attracts counter protests from local Muslim communities and from left wing groups such as Unite Against Fascism, resulting in a level of disorder between the opposing factions.

Counterradicalisation Usually refers to activity aimed at a group of people intended to dissuade them from engaging in terrorismrelated activity.

Deradicalisation usually refers to activity aimed at a person who supports terrorism and in some cases has engaged in terrorist related activity, which is intended to effect cognitive and/or behavioural change leading to a new outlook on terrorism and/or disengagement from it.

Disengagement In the context of this website, disengagement is the process whereby an individual ceases to be involved in terrorism.

Far right Groups or individuals who plan or commit serious criminal activity motivated by a political or ideological viewpoint which includes all or some of the following; extreme nationalism, racialism, fascism, NeoNazism and antiSemitism.

Ideology Is a set of beliefs. An ideologue is a proponent as well as an adherent of an ideology.

Insurgent An insurgent is an individual who fights against a government or an occupying force with the aim of overthrowing it.

Interventions Are projects intended to divert people who are being drawn into terrorist activity. Interventions can include mentoring, counselling, theological support, encouraging civic engagement, developing support networks (family and peer structures) or providing mainstream services (education, employment, health, finance or housing).

Islamism Is a philosophy which, in the broadest sense, promotes the application of Islamic values to modern government. There are no commonly agreed definitions of Islamism and Islamist, and groups or individuals described as Islamist often have very different aims and views about how those aims might be realised. Some militant Islamists would endorse violence or terrorism to achieve their aims. Many Islamists do not.

Prevention In the context of this website, prevention means reducing or eliminating the risk of individuals becoming involved in terrorism. Prevent involves the identification and referral of those susceptible to violent extremism into appropriate interventions. These interventions aim to divert the susceptible from embarking down the path to radicalisation.

Radicalisation This term refers to the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.

Radicaliser A radicaliser is an individual who encourages others to develop or adopt beliefs and views supportive of terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.

Radicalising materials This includes literature or videos that are used by radicalisers to encourage or reinforce individuals to adopt a violent ideology. Some of this material may explicitly encourage violence. Other materials may take no avowed position on violence but make claims to which violence is subsequently presented as the only solution.

Resilience In the context of this website, resilience means the capability of people, groups and communities to rebut and reject proponents of terrorism and the ideology they promote.

Safeguarding Is the process of protecting vulnerable people, whether from crime, other forms of abuse or (in the context of this website) from being drawn into terrorismrelated activity.

Single narrative The term single narrative is sometimes used to refer to the particular interpretation of religion, history and politics that is associated with Al Qaida and likeminded groups. The narrative connects grievances at a local and/or global level, reinforces the portrayal of Muslims as victims of Western injustice and thereby purports to legitimise terrorism. It combines fact, fiction, emotion and religion and manipulates discontent about local and international issues. The single narrative is also sometimes known as the Al Qaida Narrative, the Grand Narrative or the Global Extremist Narrative.

Terrorism The current UK definition of terrorism is given in the Terrorism Act 2000 (TACT 2000). In summary this defines terrorism as an action that endangers or causes serious violence to a person/people; causes serious damage to property; or seriously interferes or disrupts an electronic system. The use or threat must be designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public and is made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause.

Vulnerability Describes the condition of being capable of being injured, difficult to defend, open to moral or ideological attack. Within Prevent, the word describes factors and characteristics associated with being susceptible to radicalisation.

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